The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as BC. Irish immigrants dominated the first wave of newcomers during this period, especially following the Irish Potato Famine ; by , about 35, Irish lived in Boston. After the Great Boston fire of , workers used building rubble as landfill along the downtown waterfront. Reclamation projects in the middle of the century created significant parts of the South End , the West End , the Financial District , and Chinatown. It was also a testament to the power and courage of the militia, as their stubborn defending made it difficult for the British to capture Charlestown without losing many troops.
Washington was confident that the army would be able to resist a small-scale invasion with their fortifications. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. In , during the Boston Massacre , the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston. Irish immigrants dominated the first wave of newcomers during this period, especially following the Irish Potato Famine ; by , about 35, Irish lived in Boston. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts , demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels. Howe planned an invasion into Boston, but bad weather delayed their advance. By the end of the 19th century, Boston's core neighborhoods had become enclaves of ethnically distinct immigrants. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city. Howe decided to withdraw, because the storm gave Washington's army more time to improve their fortifications. The present-day State House sits atop this lowered Beacon Hill. The health center is still in operation and was rededicated in as the Geiger-Gibson Community Health Center. Boston encountered financial difficulties even as other cities in New England grew rapidly. It mostly served the massive Columbia Point public housing complex adjoining it, which was built in Boston remained one of the nation's largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, and was known for its garment production and leather-goods industries. Extensive demolition was met with strong public opposition. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history;  America's first public school was founded in Boston in This did not sit well with the colonists. It was also a testament to the power and courage of the militia, as their stubborn defending made it difficult for the British to capture Charlestown without losing many troops. The New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. During the mid-to-late 19th century, workers filled almost acres 2. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as BC. Their settlement was initially limited to the Shawmut Peninsula , at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The event was widely publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Pyrrhic victory for the British because their army suffered devastating casualties. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe , then the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege. British troops evacuated Boston on March 17, which solidified the revolutionaries' control of the city.
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